Import costs from China have become a vital issue for many importers. By many metrics, China is one of the largest product manufacturers in the world. Due to China’s manufacturing reputation, many importers, large and small, turn here when they need to import products for their business. As a result, it’s crucial to have an in-depth understanding of the costs of importing from China.
Import costs from China include:
A Licensed Customs Broker can help you understand shipping terms and ensure correct HTS classification for goods when importing from China.
Read on to learn more about the cost of importing from China, how to reduce those costs, and more.
Yes, there are a number of taxes, duties and other fees required when importing goods from China. Most notably, importers are required to pay import taxes, or customs duties, on imported goods, just like they would when importing from any other country.
Additional costs, like Section 301 tariffs and anti-dumping/countervailing duties (AD/CVD) are owed on specific products imported from China. There are also added costs like Merchandise Processing Fees, Harbor Maintenance Fees, and other miscellaneous costs that have to be taken into account when importing.
Customs duties are owed on nearly every product imported from China to the United States. This rule applies so long as the total value of the imported goods totals $800 or more (known as the De Minimis value). If the goods that you’re importing cost less than $800, they are not subject to duty or taxes (with the exception of goods like alcohol and tobacco).
In order to figure out how to calculate import duty from China to the U.S., you need to know your product’s HTS classification. Every internationally traded item can be classified using the International Harmonized System (HS).
Once you find an item’s corresponding HS code (or HTSUS if importing from the United States), you will find the tariff rate associated with that product. That code will then be listed on the commercial invoice.
In addition to the tariff rate, an HTS code will also indicate whether or not the U.S. has a trade relationship with any country for specific product imports. According to the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC), tariff rates are broken up into three categories:
China falls under the “General” category. That means that the United States and China do not have a trade agreement in place. No special treatment is given on imports of goods from China to the U.S.A.
In addition to normal customs duties, a country may also impose additional tariffs on products imported from foreign countries. In the case of China, the U.S. has imposed Section 301 Tariffs on thousands of goods.
Section 301 was signed in 2018 as part of an ongoing trade war between the U.S. and China. The signing imposed tariffs on $550 billion worth of commodities regularly imported from China to the U.S. The tariffs are broken up into four separate lists, each covering various goods and including exclusions and tariff rates.
Anti-dumping and countervailing duties are imposed on certain goods in order to protect domestic industries.
If a foreign country is found to be “dumping” goods into the U.S. at a far lower cost than those goods are being sold in the U.S., antidumping duties will be put in place. The USITC is the organization responsible for implementing anti-dumping duties. Anti-dumping duties are imposed by taxing the goods in question at a far greater rate than the value of those goods.
Similarly, countervailing duties are placed on certain goods for similar reasons. Countervailing duties are implemented when export subsidies make the sale of certain products non-competitive for domestic industries.
The International Trade Administration has a full list of all goods from China subject to AD/CVD.
According to Customs and Border Protection (CBP), another fee you’ll have to pay when importing into the U.S. is the merchandise processing fee. The amount you pay depends on whether or not the value of your shipment totals more than $2,500 (not including duty, shipping, or insurance fees).
For example, let’s say you have two separate shipments: one valued at $500, and the other at $3,800. Assuming the $500 shipment is manual, but not processed by CBP, you’d owe a flat rate of $6.66 for your merchandise processing fee. That would bring the total cost of your shipment, plus the MPF, to $506.66.
As for the $3,800 order, you would have to multiply the $3,800 by 0.3464, equaling $1,316.32. However, because this figure exceeds the maximum allowed MPF, your fee would be $538.40. That would bring the total cost of your shipment, plus MPF, to $4,338.40.
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If your goods are shipped by sea, you’ll be required to pay a Harbor Maintenance Fee. The Harbor Maintenance Fee rate is 0.125% of the value of the imported cargo. There is no minimum or maximum HMF.
Additionally, this fee is charged for goods regardless of duty-free status. Harbor maintenance fees help cover the costs of maintaining ports and harbors around the country.
Many of the taxes and fees listed above are required in order to import from China. However, there are other costs you need to consider. While not always required, freight insurance is highly recommended, especially for high-value items or any items making a cross seas voyage.
Importers must also consider the cost of shipping, storage, and potential accessorial fees owed on the goods once they arrive at port. Federal excise taxes and sales taxes are also required on certain goods. It’s worth noting that value-added taxes (VAT rates) are not charged on imports from China to the U.S.
No matter what you’re planning to import, it’s important to keep in mind all of the potential costs that you may be responsible for before you make your purchase. Below, we’ll list some options available to help reduce import costs.
There are multiple ways to reduce import costs when shipping from China. Ultimately though, the process comes down to getting professional advice and being able to do your own research. Some of the best ways to reduce import costs include:
A customs broker licensed by CBP can be an incredible asset when importing goods from China. Ways that a customs broker can help reduce import costs include:
Customs brokers are there to work for you and address all of your importing needs. Hiring a licensed professional is one of the most surefire ways to ensure that the proper procedures are being followed and to avoid or reduce any potential importing costs.
When looking to reduce import costs from China, one of the first steps you should take is to shop around for a supplier offering competitive rates. There are countless manufacturers competing for your business. If you don’t find a price or quality of product that meets your needs, simply shop around and screen suppliers until you do.
Some of the most popular platforms used to source Chinese suppliers include:
However, when sourcing products from Chinese suppliers, it’s important to keep a number of things in mind.
If the amount of product that you would have to order exceeds the benefit that you’d get from ordering from a cheaper supplier, it likely won’t be worth it. Shop around until you can find a supplier that meets your needs for both cost and order quantity.
Another way to reduce import costs from China is to negotiate for Incoterms ® that meet your importing needs. Incoterms ® are mutually agreed-upon conditions between a seller and buyer.
These shipping terms cover details like ownership transfer, transportation costs, insurance, import duties, and more.
There are 11 different Incoterms ® that can be negotiated. The most buyer-friendly option is Delivered Duty Paid (DDP). In a DDP agreement, the seller is responsible for all costs associated with the shipment, including transportation, insurance and even customs duties.
On the other hand, the most seller-friendly option is Ex Works (EXW). Under EXW, the buyer is responsible for all costs and risks associated with the shipment.
Many small businesses and importers shipping small orders choose EXW when importing. Oftentimes, it’s difficult to get a seller to agree to Incoterms ® that don’t directly benefit them. Instead, a buyer will choose to work with an experienced and reliable customs broker or freight forwarder. When working with a partner that strives to find the best prices and solutions to meet your needs, you can reduce import costs at every turn.
Remember, Incoterms ® are a negotiation. Both parties obviously want the terms that best suit their needs. As the importer, however, you’re unlikely to make that happen without compromising in other areas.
As a result, the most common Incoterms ® are Free on Board (FOB). Under FOB, the buyer and seller split costs 50/50. The seller assumes costs and risks up to the point that the goods are loaded onto the ship for departure. The buyer takes over from there, taking responsibility for the goods while on the ship or once they arrive at their destination.
Finding Incoterms ® that work for you is one of the best ways to reduce import costs from China. If you’d like to learn more, the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) has a full list of incoterms ® available.
Whether you or your supplier handle the packing and logistics involved in shipping your goods, it’s important to keep in mind how the proper packaging can reduce costs.
In all likelihood, your products will be loaded onto a massive cargo ship with thousands of containers making their journey from China to the U.S. For those shipments, the name of the game is fitting as much cargo into a container - and as many containers onto a ship - as possible.
As a result, freight charges are often calculated based on the weight and volume that the cargo takes up. By consolidating your goods and packing them in an effort to fit more goods into fewer shipments, you can reduce import costs.
The short answer is: No, you can’t. When products are imported into the United States, there are always going to be taxes and fees that need to be paid. The closest option available to avoiding import costs would be to negotiate DDP Incoterms ® with your supplier. In that case, the supplier would be responsible for all transportation, insurance and customs duty costs.
However, it’s unlikely that you’ll be able to get a seller to agree to those terms. Even if you are able to obtain these terms, you’ll likely experience increased costs elsewhere.
When looking to reduce import costs from China, it’s crucial to do your research and calculate all costs you’ll be responsible for before you make your purchase. The main costs you’ll need to consider when making your calculations are:
The total cost for each of these expenses will always depend on you and your business needs. Once you determine the cost of each of these factors, you can add them together to calculate your total import costs.
As stated before, it’s critical to do your own research and make your calculations before you make any import decisions.
New entrepreneurs and established import/export businesses, alike, turn to China when looking to import products into the United States. China is one of the top global options for product sourcing due to its quick turnaround time, high output and low cost of products.
In fact, according to the Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR), China was the largest supplier of goods imported into the United States in 2020. Altogether, China totaled $434.7 billion and accounted for 18.6% of U.S. imports. The most imported products include:
China is also the U.S.’s seventh-largest supplier of agriculture products, totaling $3.8 billion in 2020. The most imported agricultural imports include:
Whether you’re an experienced importer or a new entrepreneur, navigating the world of customs clearance and global imports can be complicated and confusing. At USA Customs Clearance, we have the experience and know-how to help you buy and sell products internationally, and reduce costs while doing so.
Our Licensed Customs Brokers can guide you through every step of the import process. They can also help you register to become an Importer of Record. If you need to secure a customs bond, we can help with that too. You can even purchase a new importer bundle, which includes each of these options and more! Speak with one of our experts and get started importing today.